Read more about Aldo Manuzio (alias Aldus Manutius) HERE.
I started out as an Indie Author-Publisher with CreateSpace, and was content to leave it that way for several years. Then I tried Lulu, and found their output to be just as good, their range of print options to be more varied, and their customer service to be superior.
Lulu also distributes to all of the major online outlets and to Ingram. Moreover, at the Lulu Store, I can price my books more reasonably than the list prices that are required for non-Amazon-originated publications that are listed for sale at that Major Online Retailer – and I can still receive a reasonable return on my investment of time and talent.
As far as publishing costs are concerned, although the costs of copies in some standard trim sizes at CreateSpace were less than at Lulu, CreateSpace shipping and handling fees tended to cancel out the difference, because Lulu frequently offers discounts on purchases and free shipping (and sometimes both at the same time), while CS never did in the six years I’ve been enrolled there as a publisher.
The advantage of my continuing to publish with CreateSpace was that I could obtain a free ISBN for my autograph books, which are in a non-standard trim size, and they are automatically offered on Amazon (although their being non-standard disqualifies them from distribution to other outlets). Lulu doesn’t offer a free ISBN for nonstandard trim sizes, so if I wanted those books to have them, I would have to purchase my own, which is prohibitively expensive, for me. At Lulu, not having an ISBN for a book in any trim size restricts sale of that book to the Lulu Store, which at present is a discoverability disadvantage; nevertheless, my Lulu-printed autograph books are larger than the CS-printed ones (7″ x 9″, versus 6″ x 8.25″), which is an advantage to my customers.
But the game is about to change, because of alterations by Amazon to its printing business portfolio. I’ve read some of their explanatory posts regarding the impact of those changes on works formerly published through CS, but I’m not reassured about the ultimate outcome.
I’m apprehensive about my being forced to comply with Amazon’s self-serving protocols, such as Kindle ebook participation (because I have always opted out of that for my works published through CreateSpace, having preferred to use Smashwords), and the pressure Amazon puts on authors to give away their work, which falsely inflates Amazon’s “sales” statistics with freebie distribution numbers. (Lulu also produces ebooks, but Irish Firebrands is the only one of the many titles I have out that can be published digitally, and I haven’t gotten around to looking into that, yet).
I’m also displeased with the additional month of postponement in royalty payments that will occur with the transfer of CS titles to the KDP line: a move that’s calculated to squeeze as much revenue as possible out of participating Indie Author-Publishers, by Amazon’s earning an extra month’s interest on our royalties that they have on deposit pending payout.
It’s possible that other prejudicial actions may be taken, particularly against those of us who also publish through other print-on-demand providers who distribute to Amazon. For example, many weeks after having successfully put out Volume 2 of the two-part paperback second printing of Irish Firebrands, and having seen it appear at Amazon, I unexpectedly received a notice that the file was “corrupted” and needed to be fixed (no details provided) for it to be sold through that retailer.
Perhaps Indies who don’t publish exclusively through the Amazon system are going to be dumped, and that smacks of attempts to establish a monopoly – which sticks in my craw. It’s anybody’s guess how this is all going to fall out, but CreateSpace’s days are numbered – and so may be mine, in the Major Online Retailer’s grand scheme.
Now that the Amazon knife is poised at the CreateSpace throat, Lulu – with its stated commitment to printing on paper – may be in the position to step into the void that will be left by the coming demise. If you decide to publish with Lulu, be sure to let us know, so we can help drive more traffic there and improve discoverability and sales for all Indie Author-Publishers.
Lulu Logo Source: Lulu is Getting a New Look! | | Lulu Blog
As promised in prior posts in this series, here are some tips that can help manually manage widow and orphan control, unsightly gaps in justified text, and faulty automatic hyphenation, when preparing a manuscript for Indie Publishing.
The merest fraction of an inch more or less in a side margin can change the width of a line of text, and a similar increase or decrease in a top or bottom margin will affect the number of lines on a page. Changing a side margin may be enough to do away with any of the above-mentioned problems, while changing top or bottom margins will remedy widows and orphans (check the page with a test print to see which is least likely to draw attention to itself). You may need to format a whole chapter in that margin size, so it won’t be noticeable.
Did you know that font size doesn’t always have to be a whole number? Try adjusting the font size in increments of 0.5 (i. e., 11.5, 12.5, etc.). You may need to format a large amount of text in the new size, so there won’t be just one word standing out that’s just a hair bigger or smaller than the rest. This works best with more decorative fonts, and on pages that have text which is broken up by illustrations.
Font compression or expansion.
Font compression and expansion are sometimes expressed in percentages. They can often be fine-tuned in increments of 0.5, too. A very small compression or expansion of a single word in a line may be enough to shorten or lengthen that line enough to get rid of a gap or a stupidly placed automatic hyphenation, or to tighten or loosen a paragraph enough to eliminate a widow or orphan. Keep the squish or the stretch as tiny as possible, so it doesn’t draw attention to itself. If necessary, a whole sentence or paragraph can be compressed or expanded to take care of stubborn spacing problems, but be careful with large-scale compression or expansion, such as for the whole book (something you might want to do to economize on page length, to reduce printing cost): Text that’s squeezed too tight can become hard to read (and in the worst cases, the letters can begin to overlap), and letters that are too far apart just look goofy (it’s that gap-toothed grin thing, again).
This kind of text compression is usually a single on/off setting. When kerning is turned on, what it does is to selectively place certain combinations of letters closer together, which only microscopically shortens individual words, but over the length of a whole paragraph, the compression makes a significant difference in line length without looking odd (the way simple compression can sometimes look). Kerning also enhances the overall appearance of the text. It can be done for just a sentence or paragraph at a time, or for a complete manuscript. If enabled for the whole book, it can sometimes reduce the page count a little.
Ligatures function in a similar way to that of kerning. They are often characteristic of serif fonts (serifs are the tiny dots and flourishes that appear at the tips of letters). A common example of a ligature is when the terminal dot at the top end of a lower-case “f” connects with the jot above a lower-case “i.” This does away with a possibly messy double-dotted appearance, and has the effect of tightening up that pair of letters, somewhat like kerning. If ligatures annoy you (we all have our little pet peeves), you may be able to get rid of them by expanding the words in which they appear, but that may turn out to be more work than it’s worth.
Not all 12-point fonts are created equal: 12-point Times New Roman has different sized characters to 12-point Garamond, so they take up different amounts of space. Changing fonts will therefore change total page count. Proportional fonts (like TNR) also have a bit of kerning built into them, often including the use of ligatures, whereas in a monotype font (the classic example is Courier, which replicates traditional typewriter output), all of the letters are always the same distance apart. Changing from a monotype font to a proportional font will also change total page count, as well as affecting where auto-hyphenation occurs and modifying the widow and orphan incidence, although problems with line or page appearance may still appear.
There are screen fonts and printable fonts (often called “TrueType” fonts). A screen font is one that will only appear in your own virtual copy, often because the license to use it exists solely for the exact software package that came with the computer. Screen fonts will not display or print on someone else’s hardware (including that of your print-on-demand provider), and they cannot be embedded because of the digital rights management that goes with them. This problem can run into money wasted on faulty proof copies, until you figure out what to substitute that will work. I once had a ghastly problem with a font that would not embed, preventing the printing of a symbol, and I ended up converting the desired character to a graphics element, in order to get it to display properly in print.
This adjustment can alter the length of paragraphs and pages, pushing lines up or down to split paragraphs at different levels and thus get rid of widows and orphans; however, it’s best done for the whole manuscript, to keep the appearance uniform. In addition, the visually appropriate amount of white space between lines is limited: add too much, and your book begins to look like a primer for beginning readers. Most traditionally published books space their lines at 1.15, which is the easiest to read and the most attractive arrangement. Single-line spacing will do, if you’re in need of shortening your overall page count, but tightening up the line spacing too much has a similar crowded effect as does text that’s been overly compressed, making the printing hard to read. Double- or triple-line spacing is not done in fiction publishing, except for occasional special visual effects (make sure your genre justifies its use); in non-fiction, widely spaced lines of type may appear in some kinds of textbooks or workbooks, or books for young readers.
A word of advice.
When fiddling with formatting, be sure you have saved a clean backup copy of your manuscript, because any of these manipulations can have unexpectedly nasty results. If you haven’t already adjusted your editing preferences to enable a large number of “undo” operations, I’d also strongly recommend doing that before engaging in any text-tweaking virtual typesetting.
Finally, always print a short excerpt in book-fold format, to see how your changes turn out in the flesh: WYS on the screen is not necessarily always WYG on paper.
(If you’re curious to learn more about the typesetting aspect of publishing, you can probably find out more in any good encyclopedia.)
Text ©2000-2017 by Christine Plouvier. All Rights Reserved.
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